six empty copyright 2011 artemis sere, wikipedia [xenomorphous research]
[immunosuppressive drug, wikipedia]
Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system. They are used in immunosuppressive therapy to:
Prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and tissues (e.g., bone marrow, heart, kidney, liver)
Treat autoimmune diseases or diseases that are most likely of autoimmune origin (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, systemic lupus erythematosus, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, Crohn’s disease, Behcet’s Disease, pemphigus, and ulcerative colitis).
Treat some other non-autoimmune inflammatory diseases (e.g., long term allergic asthma control).
These drugs are not without side-effects and risks. Because the majority of them act non-selectively, the immune system is less able to resist infections and the spread of malignant cells. There are also other side-effects, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, peptic ulcers, liver, and kidney injury. The immunosuppressive drugs also interact with other medicines and affect their metabolism and action. Actual or suspected immunosuppressive agents can be evaluated in terms of their effects on lymphocyte subpopulations in tissues using immunohistochemistry.
It is used to treat leukemia, pediatric non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, polycythemia vera, psoriatic arthritis, and inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis)
It has demonstrated some in vitro effectiveness against Mycobacterium paratuberculosis.
6-MP ribonucleotide inhibits purine nucleotide synthesis and metabolism. This alters the synthesis and function of RNA and DNA. Mercaptopurine interferes with nucleotide interconversion and glycoprotein synthesis.
Some of the adverse reactions of taking mercaptopurine might include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, fatigue, stomach/abdominal pain, weakness, skin rash, darkening of the skin, or hair loss. Serious adverse reactions include mouth sores, fever, sore throat, easy bruising or bleeding, pinpoint red spots on the skin, yellowing of eyes or skin, dark urine, and painful or difficult urination. Unlikely but serious side-effects include: black or tarry stools (melena), bloody stools, and bloody urine.
Symptoms of allergic reaction to mercaptopurine include rash, itching, swelling, dizziness, trouble breathing, and pancreatitis.
Mercaptopurine causes myelosuppression, suppressing the production of white blood cells and red blood cells. It may be toxic to bone marrow. Weekly blood counts are recommended for patients on mercaptopurine. The patient should stop taking the medication at least temporarily if there is an unexplained, abnormally large drop in white blood cell count, or any other blood count.
Patients exhibiting myelosuppression or bone marrow toxicity should be tested for thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) enzyme deficiency. Patients with TPMT deficiency are much more likely to develop dangerous myelosuppression. In such patients, it may be possible to continue using mercaptopurine, but at a lower dose.
Allopurinol inhibits xanthine oxidase, the enzyme that breaks down mercaptopurine. Those taking allopurinol (often used to prevent gout) are at risk for mercaptopurine toxicity. The dose should be reduced or allopurinol should be discontinued.
Mercaptopurine can lower the body’s ability to fight off infection. Those taking mercaptopurine should get permission from a doctor in order to receive immunizations and vaccinations. It is also recommended that, while on the drug, one should avoid those having recently received oral polio vaccine.
This drug is traditionally not recommended during pregnancy, but this issue has been debated, and current evidence indicates that pregnant women on the drug show no increase in fetal abnormalities. However, women receiving mercaptopurine during the first trimester of pregnancy have an increased incidence of miscarriage. Davis et al. 1999 found that mercaptopurine, compared to methotrexate, was ineffective as a single-agent abortifacient; every woman in the mercaptopurine arm of the study had fetal cardiac activity at follow-up (two weeks later) and was given a suction abortion.
Mercaptopurine causes changes to chromosomes in animals and humans, though a study in 1990 found that, “while the carcinogenic potential of 6-MP cannot be precluded, it can be only very weak or marginal.” Another study in 1999 noted an increased risk of developing leukemia when taking large doses of 6-MP together with other cytotoxic drugs.
land of the lost copyright 2011 artemis sere [xenomorophous reflections]
What is it about me that connects to the transient–to the people that are between phases in their lives or have seemingly lost their way on the road? I don’t seek out these types of people, but they seem to find me, friend me, connect with me, force me to care about them, make their drama part of my life, to the point where the styles and patterns of their transience become my existence. I become like them, spiritually nomadic like them. Disconnected, yet in the same dizzying orbit as them.
straight away, I’ll thank her for this. for bringing me back here, to the written word. for now. I am hopeful that this refreshed commitment to letting it all drip onto the page helps again. I can’t seem to find equilibrium or direction here in the memory ward, arteries and veins weak from the poking and prodding, the letting and coagulating, the metamorphosis from failure to functional.
things are changing within, but seem to return to a common center. alien in purpose and path.. painless in promise, but presenting only broken ties. this is what I’ve worked so hard for: a return to isolation, a strengthened connection to disconnection. book one was the dark start; this is the bewilderment in the wake of the ultraviolence of life.
this addiction to disappearance in the strangest of forms.
regardless of reason or cynical treasons, I’m back here, to a life with far fewer answers than questions. to a life of empty nights with the auditor’s calculator in my heart. to thumped hope and swollen pessimism. and I tell myself that this can’t be all there is to this dire craft. of healing, only to be fractured. of loving, only to be traded. of caring, only to be dropped.
never good enough. truly, and without divergence. the drugs are seemingly our best friends, but we can’t seem to pull ourselves from them long enough to be human to each other. the liquor is always the victor. it’s dominance is grand and historical. amazing and brutal. but I’m not here to judge or jury; the furious truth is that the need to disconnect is inherent in all of us. we are each a bit antisocial. why is that?
natural survival instinct would tell us to move closer, stay bound, be a tighter tribe for the sake of all human people. creatures that stray from the flock or the herd rarely survive in the wild. we are dichotomous, deeply hypocritical, split in two beings that drink symbiotically off each other. venomously feed through intravenous pipes, the darkness becomes part of us, a shade of us.
the exile of us.
wise people tell you that you should learn to enjoy being alone, find a way to appreciate the conversation you can have with yourself, getting to know yourself better. solitude is a great partner for a while, until it is the only soul in town that you know. after a while, she too stops returning your calls. you become the last survivor on a planet filled with people that talk and walk through you.
I feel like I am sometimes accompanied by an alien reflection of myself, giving me confidence and speaking the words that the humble human has trouble releasing. the stranger takes away the pain and helps me through the changes and the long lonely walks. this is not an admission of failure; this is a retreat, into the spaces where metamorphosis was once possible. straight away, I have to thank her for this. she made me realize that I needed to return to serenity and into the comfortable cocoon of away.
This is the phase of painless change with strange and amazing complications. It will be a trip.